Create. Compose. Communicate.

APA Publication Manual, 6th ed.
Sample Reference List Citations

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Journal article with DOI (digital object identifier)

Tan, H. K., Jones, G. V., & Watson, D. G. (2009). Encouraging the perceptual underdog: Positive affective priming of nonpreferred local-global processes. Emotion, 9(2), 238-247. doi:10.1037/a0014713

Journal article without DOI

Kiely, R., & Askham, J. (2012). Furnished imagination: The impact of preservice teacher training on early career work in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 46(3), 496-518.

Book (print) by a single author

Davies, D. (2010). Child development: A practitioner's guide (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Book (print) by two or more authors

Babcock, R., Manning, K., Rogers, T., Goff, C., & Davies, A. (2012). A synthesis of qualitative studies of writing center tutoring, 1983-2006. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Electronic version of print book

Newman, J. (2012). Best before: Videogames, supersession and obsolescence. [Ebook Library version]. Retrieved from

Electronic-only book

Stevens, K. (2008). The dreamer and the beast. Retrieved from

Edited book with an author or authors

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor. 

Edited book with no author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. 

Article or chapter in edited book

Vàsquez, M. A. (2013). Grappling with the legacy of modernity: Implications for the sociology of religion. In C. Bender, W. Cadge, P. Levitt, & D. Smidle (Eds.), Religion on the edge: De-centering and re-centering the sociology of religion (pp. 23-42). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in a volume in a series

Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction: Vol. 2. Discourse as social interaction (pp. 258-284). London: Sage.

Article in a reference book

Tolchinsky, L. (2013). Childhood conceptions of literacy. In T. Nunes & P. Bryant (Eds.) Handbook of children's literacy (pp. 11-30). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

An entry in an encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia  Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica. 

Government document

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Magazine article

Verini, J. (2012, December). The tunnels of Gaza. National Geographic, 222(6), 673-674.

Newspaper article

Hennigan, W. J. (2013, January 17). FAA grounds entire fleet of Boeing 787s; Flights are canceled as a range of electrical and power problems continue to plague the Dreamliner Jets. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

Motion picture

Brigham, C., & Carter, C. (Producers), & Affleck, B. (Director). (2012). Argo [Motion picture]. United States: Time Warner.


[GEICO Insurance]. (2013, May 22). GEICO hump day camel commercial – happier than a camel on Wednesday [Video File]. Retrieved from

Episode from a TV series

Kemper, C. (Writer), & Flender, R. (Director). (2012). The whale [Television series episode]. In G. Daniels (Executive producer), The Office. New York: National Broadcasting Company.

Music recording

Caird, J., Natel, J., Nunn, T., Boubil, A., Kretzmer, & H., Schonberg, C. (2012). On my own. [Recorded by Semantha Parks]. On Les Misèrables [CD]. New York, NY: Universal Republic Records.


National Eating Disorders Association [n.d.]. Contributing factors and prevention. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from

Blog post

Germano, W. (2013, January 17). Jack Lew’s signature [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Interview or e-mail

Do not include these in the References; instead, cite these in the text:
(Z. Ramirez, personal communication, February 1, 2013).


Z. Ramirez, a witness for the prosecution, told me that she had seen the defendant approaching the stop sign (personal communication, February 1, 2013).

Revised: 11/18

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